On the descent of the vessel, the management of the plant made a message about the proposed construction of a series of 20 such vessels and the creation of an operator company. "High-speed sea passenger transportation", which will organize transportation by hydrofoils. After launching the SPK "Comet 120M" should go to Crimea for testing in the Black Sea. It is planned that the SEC will be put into operation in 2018 and will start running along the Sevastopol route — Yalta.
In order to assess the scale of this event, it is worth referring to some moments in the history of the creation of sea passenger SPK in more detail. As described in previous articles, R.E. Alekseev immediately after the start of the serial production of the SPK "Rocket" moved on to designing a ship twice as large, which later received the name "Meteor". Initial sketches "Meteor" looked like a big "Rocket". But during the design process, it became clear that it was necessary to move away from the original architectural layout scheme.
The aft position of the wheelhouse, with all the benefits, gave an extensive dead zone along the bow, aft centering of the vessel and a number of other negative aspects. Therefore, when designing an SPK "Meteor" an architectural layout diagram was found that ideally corresponded to the hydrodynamic model and was subsequently repeated from project to project: the location of the control post in the first third of the building, the location of the engine room in the last third of the building, aviation division along the length of the passenger cabins, and much more.
It should be noted that the creation of marine SPK, in view of the large number of seas along the borders of the USSR, as well as inland waterways of the discharge "M" on its territory, almost immediately became one of the central tasks of R.E. Alekseev and his team. When testing SPK project 342E "Meteor" in sea conditions in the area of Feodosia, there were serious violations of the local strength of the hull, as well as the nose wing device.
During the course of the vessel against the wave with a heading angle of 45° as a result of strong blows to the bow and midsection, several pillers and knits at the bulkheads, on which the longitudinal stiffeners rest, have lost their stability.
The next step of R.E. Alekseeva in the field of creating marine hydrofoil vessels, the design and construction in 1962 of the SPK sea express project 330 "Vortex", which operated until 1981 and remained the only prototype.
As mentioned in previous articles, in the first half of the 1970s, the second stage of the creation of domestic SECs began. By this time, the main hydrodynamic and strength models, architectural-layout and structural schemes of the SPK had been worked out, there was a steady development of this type of ships. In the country, the production of the main components for the SPK was established. The hulls of ships have become significantly more technological due to their manufacture by welding from pressed panels.
The not too perfect M50 engines were replaced by the M400, M401, and then M417, M470 engines. They had lower fuel consumption and longer service life. Their serial overhaul was established at the Togliatti SRMZ.
The vessel was built from 1981 to 1992 according to the project 10390. The builders were the Shipyard "Volga" (Gorky) and Poti shipyard (Poti). In total, more than 40 units of the SPK type were built "Colchis" over the years of production.
They have an all-metal swept streamline hull, combined with the superstructure according to the scheme "monohull", an engine room located in the aft part of the hull, a wheelhouse in the bow, semi-recessed into the superstructure, a passenger compartment located in the bow, middle and aft parts of the hull. The bow salon has no frontal windows. There is a dedicated luggage room.
The vessels of this series had a number of improvements compared to the SPK type "Comet". In particular, the hull of the ship was made of pressed panels using argon-arc and spot contact welding with glue..
Table 1 Technical characteristics of the hydrofoil vessel "Colchis" projects 10390 and 10391 Type of vessel Hydrofoil vessel Year of construction of the lead vessel 1981 Name of the lead vessel "Colchis-1" Place of construction Shipyard "Volga" Russian Maritime Register of Shipping class "KM II. A3 passenger SPK" Maximum displacement, t 74.0 Length overall, m 34.4 Beam overall, m 10.4 Hull height, m 7.8 Draft afloat / on wings, m 3.2 / 1.4 Main engine power, hp. from. 2х1500 Hydrofoil travel speed in still water, km / h 60 Maximum travel speed, km / h 65 Passenger capacity, pers.
SPK building "Colchis" made of all-metal welded, together with the superstructure of aluminum alloy AMg-61. The dialing system is mixed, hinged. The spacing has a size of 600 mm.
The body has a double bottom. It is divided by ten watertight bulkheads into nine compartments, seven of which are buoyancy compartments. Unsinkability is ensured when two adjacent compartments are flooded.
The hull and superstructure are welded. The foundation beams for the main engines are welded. There are appropriate reinforcements at the connections to the wing device.
The superstructure is included in the composition of the equivalent beam and participates in the general bending.
The hydrodynamic complex of the vessel includes hull lines, a wing device and propellers in the form of two propellers located below the stern hydrofoil. The shape of the bow of the motor ship is wedge-shaped, with a strongly inclined stem, the stern is transom, the bottom has a deadrise. When the bottom is coupled with the body, a sharp cheekbone is formed. On the bottom there are two steps: one that does not reach the keel in the bow of the hull, the other is wedge-shaped in the area where the propeller shafts exit.
In the area of the deadwood there is a V-shaped transverse step.
The wing device consists of a bow, middle and stern wing device. The bow and stern fenders are made of Kh18N10T stainless steel. The middle wing is welded, made of AMg61 alloy.
The wing profile is flat-convex with a pointed leading edge. The nasal wings are V-shaped in plan. The fenders are attached to the body with struts.
At the nose wing, two of them are located on the sides and one in the DP. For the stern wing, in addition to the side struts, propeller shaft brackets are used as intermediate supports.
Table 2 Technical characteristics of the hydrofoil vessel "Comet 120M" Type of vessel Hydrofoil vessel Russian Maritime Register of Shipping class "KM II. A3 passenger SPK" Full displacement, t 73.0 Empty displacement, t 58.0 Overall length, m 35.2 Beam overall, m 10.3 Height, m 11.8 Draft afloat / on wings, m 3.5 / 1.1 Power main engines full, h.p. 2х1500 Hydrofoil travel speed in still water, km / h 60 Maximum travel speed, km / h 65 Passenger capacity, pers.
The wing struts are detachable. The lower part of the struts is welded to the wing plane, and the upper part is bolted to the body. Connection of uprights on flanges – bolted. On the side struts of the nose wing there are flaps-flaps, which serve to improve stability at the time of entering the wings.
If necessary, the flap angle can be changed. Two multi-blade propellers with a large disk ratio are used as propellers..
The engine room has two V-shaped, 12-cylinder, M470 engines with a nominal crankshaft speed of 1800 rpm, working on propellers.
Motor ships "Colchis" were completed with radio navigation and rescue devices according to the norms stipulated by the Rules of the Register of the USSR. Vessels operating on inland waterways are equipped with radio navigation and rescue devices in accordance with the standards stipulated by the Rules of the River Register. Crew composition — 3 persons.
SPK "Colchis" are distinguished by high characteristics of habitability.
More than thirty years of experience in operating passenger SPK type "Colchis" confirmed the positive qualities that were included in the project of the vessel. Almost simultaneously with the start of the serial construction of the SPK "Colchis" exported.
Modernization "Colchis" are developed by the Central Design Bureau for Hydrofoil them. R.E. Alekseeva ships projects "Colchis-M" and "Katran". These vessels differ from the basic design by the presence of two MTU 12V396TC82 diesel engines with a capacity of 1260 hp. everyone. Total for the project "Katran" built 4 vessels operating on high-speed lines in the Black and Adriatic Seas.
Of which 2 are vessels "Siflight-1" and "Siflight-2" since 2008 made regular flights on the Anapa route — Sochi (Anapa — Novorossiysk — Gelendzhik — Sochi) and since 2009 on the Anapa route — Yalta.
How will a vessel behave with a mass distribution that is fundamentally different from the traditional and repeatedly worked out mass distribution of the SPK projects of the past years? What will happen to its dynamic stability when flying on the wings and during transient conditions on the Black Sea wave? How the pitching will be perceived on it, if about the project 340 SPK "Rocket" it is known that its seaworthiness in a number of operational cases leaves much to be desired?
Are the new owners of AO SZ in a hurry? "Pennant", sending a newly built test vessel to the Black Sea, located at a significant distance from the plant?
Do they wishful thinking, betting on this SPK, without waiting for the results of trial operation? What if, like many of its predecessors, SPK "Comet 120M" will remain in a single copy?
The design characteristics and operational features of passenger hydrofoil ships, as well as descriptions of the materials from which these ships are made, are taken from scientific and technical reports on research carried out by the M.V. N.E. Bauman by cipher "Siberia" under state contract No. 13411.1007499.09.082 dated November 18, 2013 with the Ministry of Industry and Trade of Russia for technological direction No. 3 "Conceptual designs for marine technology" ("New look") Federal Target Program "Development of civilian marine technology" for 2009-2016, event
3.3.2 "High-speed passenger ships", as well as according to the PNI performed by the Moscow State Technical University. N.E. Bauman on the topic "Development of structural and technological solutions for a superstructure made of polymer composite materials for a high-speed passenger hydrofoil vessel with improved technical and economic characteristics" under the agreement on the provision of subsidies No.
14.577.21.0103 with the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation under the FTP "Research and development in priority areas of development of the scientific and technological complex of Russia for 2014 — 2020 years", which the author has directed.